Specific personality disorders

Specific personality disorders

These are severe disturbances in the personality and behavioral tendencies of the individual; not directly resulting from disease, damage, or other insult to the brain, or from another psychiatric disorder; usually involving several areas of the personality; nearly always associated with considerable personal distress and social disruption; and usually manifest since childhood or adolescence and continuing throughout adulthood.

There are many types of specific personality disorders, such as:

    1. Paranoid personality disorder (F60.0)
    2. Schizoid personality disorder (F60.1)
    3. Dissocial personality disorder (F60.2)
    4. Emotionally unstable personality disorder (F60.3)
    5. Histrionic personality disorder (F60.4)
    6. Anankastic personality disorder (F60.5)
    7. Anxious (avoidant) personality disorder (F60.6)
    8. Dependent personality disorder (F60.7)
    9. Other specific personality disorders (F60.8)
    10. Unspecified personality disorder (F60.9)

Specific personality disorders, characterized by:

  • Severe disturbances in the personality and behavioural tendencies of the individual
  • Not directly resulting from disease, damage, or other insult to the brain, or from another psychiatric disorder
  • Usually involving several areas of the personality
  • Nearly always associated with considerable personal distress and social disruption
  • Usually manifest since childhood or adolescence and continuing throughout adulthood.
  • Personality disorder is persistent and appears already within late childhood and adolescence being fully manifested in adulthood (diagnosing after the age of 16-17 years)
  • The disorder is usually associated with significant problems in occupational and social performance
  • Causes of personality disorders are mostly genetic though the influence of upbringing, parent-child relationship and social environment play also their roles.

F60.0 – Paranoid personality disorder

Characterized by:

  • Excessive sensitiveness to setbacks,
  • Persistent refusal to forgive insults and slights,
  • Suspiciousness,
  • Tendencies to misconstrue the neutral or friendly actions of others as hostile or contemptuous,
  • Suspiciousness concerning fidelity of sexual partner,
  • Tendencies to experience excessive self-importance
  • Preoccupation with unsubstantiated conspiratorial explanations of events

*Diagnosis: If at least 3 points above (+)

Personality (disorder):

  • Expansive paranoid
  • Fanatic
  • Querulant
  • Paranoid
  • Sensitive paranoid

F60.1 – Schizoid personality disorder

Characterized by:

  • Few activities provide pleasure,
  • Emotional coldness,
  • Limited capacity to express either warm or hostile feelings with indifference to either praise or criticism,
  • Little interest in having sexual experiences with another person,
  • Preference for solitary activities,
  • Excessive preoccupation with fantasy and introspection,
  • Lack of close friends
  • Marked insensitivity to prevailing social norms and conventions.

*Diagnosis: If at least 3 points above (+)

F60.2 – Dissocial personality disorder

Characterized by:

  • Gross disparity between behaviour and the prevailing social norms
  • A callous disregard for the feelings of others,
  • Incapacity to maintain enduring relationships,
  • Gross attitude of irresponsibility
  • Very low tolerance to frustration,
  • A low threshold for discharge of aggression and violence
  • Incapacity to experience guilt and to profit from experience including punishment
  • A tendency to blame others, or to offer plausible rationalizations for the behaviour bringing the patient into conflict with society

*Diagnosis: If at least 3 points above (+)

Personality (disorder):

  • Amoral
  • Antisocial
  • Asocial
  • Psychopathic
  • Sociopathic

F60.3 – Emotionally unstable personality disorder

Characterized by:

  • A definite tendency to act impulsively without consideration of the consequences, together with affective instability
  • Outbursts of anger may lead to violence, particularly in response to criticism (impulsive type)

Two types may be distinguished:

  1. Impulsive type – characterized predominantly by emotional instability and lack of impulse control
  2. Borderline type – characterized in addition by disturbances in self-image, aims, and internal preferences, by chronic feelings of emptiness, by intense and unstable interpersonal relationships, and by a tendency to self-destructive behaviour, including suicide gestures and attempts

Personality (disorder):

  • Aggressive
  • Borderline
  • Explosive

F60.4 – Histrionic personality disorder

Characterized by:

  • Self-dramatization,
  • Pseudologia phantastica,
  • Exaggerated expression of emotions,
  • Enhanced suggestibility,
  • Shallow and labile affectivity,
  • Continual seeking for excitement, appreciation by others, and activities in which the patient is the centre of attention,
  • Over-concern with physical attractiveness together with inappropriate seductiveness, egocentricity, manipulative behavior

*Diagnosis: If at least 3 points above (+)

Personality (disorder):

  • Hysterical
  • Psychoinfantile

F60.5 – Anankastic personality disorder

Characterized by:

  • Feelings of excessive doubts,
  • Preoccupation with details,
  • Perfectionism interfering with task completion,
  • Excessive conscientiousness and pedantry, rigidity
  • Intrusion of insistent and unwelcome thoughts or impulses that do not attain the severity of an obsessive-compulsive disorder

*Diagnosis: If at least 3 points above (+)

Personality (disorder):

  • Compulsive
  • Obsessional
  • Obsessive-compulsive

F60.6 – Anxious (avoidant) personality disorder

Characterized by:

  • Persistent and pervasive feelings of tension and apprehension,
  • Preoccupation with being criticized or rejected by others,
  • Avoidance of social or occupational activities because of fears of disapproval or rejection

*Diagnosis: If at least 3 points (all) above (+)

F60.7 – Dependent personality disorder

Characterized by:

  • Pervasive passive reliance on other people to make one’s major and minor life decisions,
  • Great fear of abandonment,
  • Feelings of helplessness and incompetence,
  • Passive compliance with the wishes of elders and others,
  • A weak response to the demands of daily life,
  • Lack of vigour may show itself in the intellectual or emotional spheres
  • There is often a tendency to transfer responsibility to others

*Diagnosis: If at least 3 points above (+)

Personality (disorder):

  • Asthenic
  • Inadequate
  • Passive
  • Self-defeating

F60.8 – Other specific personality disorders

Such as:

  1. Accentric personality disorder
  2. “Haltlose type personality disorder
  3. Immature personality disorder
  4. Narcissistic personality disorder
  5. Passive-aggressive personality disorder
  6. Psychoneurotic personality disorder
This entry was posted in Emotion and Mental, Growth and Development, Medicine, Pediatric, Psychiatry, Psychology. Bookmark the permalink.

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